Dr. Sushila Srivastava, Dr. Monika Malik and Shubham
Quantum computing, an innovative fusion of quantum mechanics and computer science, has emerged as a transformative force in the field of physics research. This comprehensive review article explores the advancements in quantum computing, focusing on quantum algorithms and their applications in various areas of physics. The review begins with an introduction to the fundamentals of quantum computing, elucidating the principles of qubits, quantum gates, and quantum algorithms. Subsequently, the article delves into the latest developments in quantum algorithms, including Shor's algorithm for factoring large numbers, Grover's algorithm for quantum search, and quantum phase estimation for simulating quantum systems. Furthermore, the review explores the practical applications of quantum computing in physics, encompassing quantum simulations of complex systems, quantum chemistry calculations, and quantum optimization for problem-solving. Additionally, the article presents case studies that demonstrate the practical implications of quantum computing in specific physics applications. The review also addresses the challenges and prospects of quantum computing in physics, including quantum error mitigation, hardware scalability, and quantum-classical interfaces. Ethical and societal considerations related to quantum computing's cryptographic impact, access, and responsible development are also discussed. Furthermore, the review explores the future directions of quantum computing in physics, from quantum supremacy to quantum machine learning and quantum gravity. The article concludes with reflections on the transformative potential of quantum computing in physics research and the importance of collaborative efforts, interdisciplinary research, and responsible development in shaping the future of quantum technologies. Overall, this comprehensive review offers valuable insights into the current state of quantum computing in physics and the exciting possibilities that lie ahead for unravelling the mysteries of the universe.
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